Ships not in active service; a ship
which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better markets,
needing work for classification, etc.
Type of ship which trades only in
the Great Lakes of North America. They usually carry grain and ore
A system of through rates and
service offered by a carrier for cargo shipments from a foreign port to a
U.S. port, across U.S. land to another U.S. port and finally by sea to a
foreign port destination.
Lighter aboard ship: A
barge carrier designed to act as a shuttle between ports, taking on and
LASH stand for Lighter Aboard Ship. It is a specialized container ship
carrying very large floating containers, or "lighters." The ship carries
its own massive crane, which loads and discharges the containers over the
stern. The lighters each have a capacity of 400 tons and are stowed in the
holds and on deck. While, the ship is at sea with one set of lighters,
further sets can be made ready. Loading and discharge are rapid at about
15 minutes per lighter, no port or dock facilities are needed, and the
lighters can be grouped for pushing by towboats along inland waterways.
Time allowed by the
shipowner to the voyage charterer or bill of lading holder in which to
load and/or discharge the cargo. It is expressed as a number of days or
hours or as a number of tons per day.
Temporary cessation of trading of a
ship by a shipowner during a period when there is a surplus of ships in
relation to the level of available cargoes. This surplus, known as
overtonnaging, has the effect of depressing freight rates to the extent
that some shipowners no long find it economical to trade their ship,
preferring to lay them up until there is a reversal in the
consignment of cargo which is inefficient to fill a shipping container. It
is grouped with other consignments for the same destination in a container
at a container freight station.
A specially constructed double
ended boat which can withstand heavy, rough seas.
The master of
every vessel is bound by international law to make the officers, crew and
passengers adequately acquainted with the procedures of lowering and the
use of lifeboats in case of emergency.
The weight of a ship's hull, machinery, equipment and spares. This is
often the basis on which ships are paid for when purchased for scrapping.
The difference between the loaded displacement and light displacement is
the ship's deadweight.
General name for a broad,
flat-bottomed boat used in transporting cargo between a vessel and the
shore. The distinction between a lighter and a barge is more in the manner
of use than in equipment. The term "lighter" refers to a short haul,
generally in connection with loading and unloading operations of vessels
in harbor while the term "barge" is more often used when the cargo is
being carried to its destination over a long distance.
An ocean ship
which carries barges. These barges are loaded with cargo, often at a
variety of locations, towed to the ocean ship, sometimes referred to as
the mother ship, and lifted or, in some cases, floated on board. After the
ocean crossing, the barges are off-loaded and towed to their various
destinations. The ocean ship then receives a further set of barges which
have been assembled in readiness. This concept was designed to eliminate
the need for specialized port equipment and to avoid transshipment with
its consequent extra cost.
Charge for conveying cargo by
lighters or barges.
Conveying cargo with another vessel
known as a lighter from ship to shore, or vice versa.
A cargo-carrying ship which is
operated between scheduled, advertised ports of loading and discharge on a
operating on fixed itineraries or regular schedules and established rates
available to all shippers. The freight rates which are charged are based
on the shipping company's tariff or if the company is a member of a liner
conference, the tariff of that conference.
REGISTER OF SHIPPING
British classification society.
Liquefied Natural Gas, or a carrier
natural gas carrier, perhaps the most sophisticated of all commercial
ships. The cargo tanks are made of a special aluminum alloy and are
heavily insulated to carry natural gas in its liquid state at a
temperature of -2850F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much
as an oil tanker of the same size.
The line on a
vessel indicating the maximum depth to which that vessel can sink when
loaded with cargo. Also known as marks.
Subdivision of a
ship's voyage during which the ship is carrying cargo.
A member of the crew
stationed on the forecastle, or on the bridge, whose duty it is to watch
for any dangerous objects or for any other vessels heaving into
Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or a
carrier of LPG.
Long tons (2,240 lbs.).